7 tipos de Medidas Ativas de Emprego para reintegrar os desempregados no mercado de trabalho
In the literature, ‘active’ labour market policies are distinguished from ‘passive’ labour market policies. ‘Passive’ policies are concerned with providing replacement income during periods of unemployment or job search, while ‘active’ policies emphasise labour market (re)‐integration.
The large literature on this topic contains various ways to categorise ALMPs. In simple terms, however, we can distinguish between ALMPs which have a supply side emphasis and those which are oriented towards the demand side of the labour market.
Thus on the supply side, measures include:
1. training schemes: these are the classic elements of Scandinavian ALMPs and may cover vocational and or general skills. The underlying argument here is that the employability and job‐finding chances of workless people will be enhanced by participation in the programmes.
2. information and job‐broking activities: these are the standard job‐matching activities of the public employment service2, which involve the registration of vacancies, and the provision of vacancy information to job‐seekers and the provision of information on job‐seekers to employers.
3. information, advice and guidance to job‐seekers: this involves more proactive engagement by the public employment service with job‐seekers, providing support and advice on jobsearch, often along with motivational activities.
4. sanctions and incentives: these are ‘sticks’ and ‘carrots’ used to ‘activate’ workless jobseekers, with the sticks, for example, involving compulsory participation in active measures with the (threat of) benefit withdrawal in cases of non‐ participation; and the carrots involving financial incentives (eg a monetary bonus offered when a workless person accepts a job offer).
5. subsidies to individuals to support and encourage them to enter self‐employment and start their own enterprises (arguably these also have a demand side component).
On the demand side, the main types of measures observed are:
6. subsidies to employers who hire workless job‐seekers (typically from particular target groups)
7. job creation schemes: these are traditional ‘make work’ schemes often in the public or not‐for‐profit sector, which provide work opportunities for otherwise workless individuals.
In “The Role of Training and Skills Development in Active Labour Market Policies”